In our article on political systems resliences, we define it as such: “The term resilience refers to “the ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political and environmental change.” Political resilience then refers to the capacity of political organizations to adapt to, and evolve responses to, internal and external events, such as large inflows of migration, war, financial crisis, rapid changes in demographics, environmental change etc. A central aspect of resilience is the distinction between resistance and adaptation; where a resilient system is seen to be one that has the capacity to transform itself in response to changes within its environment. Such a macro-level process of adaptation within a sociopolitical system requires an effective process through which the system can sense changes in its environment; come to consensus surrounding the relevance of various risks and opportunities; develop a diversity of responses within the system and select those that are most appropriate given the context and then scaling these so as to deliver an appropriate response”